To date, for the world, including for the domestic energy sector is characterized by economic and environmental prerequisites for accelerated introduction of thermal plants to renewable and secondary sources heat, realizing the power cycles (ie, converting heat into mechanical work with a possible further transformation of it into electricity). For economic reasons include: – rapid exhaustion of the world industrial organic fossil fuels, which at the current rate of growth in energy consumption (about 5% per year) will run out completely within 70 years – his lack of fuel resources: even with the full development of known deposits Ukraine can provide a gas-only less than 70% of the required amount, and oil – less than 15% – as a consequence of the first two factors inevitably a constant and significant rise in prices of imported energy resources (natural gas price for Ukrainian consumers in three years has tripled and is projected gas price will rise until 2010, yet three times) – while maintaining a policy of European integration, the government will be forced to develop (subsidize) alternative energy, as is now the minimum amount of its total energy in the candidate countries for accession to the European Union should be 9 … 12%. There are also reasons ecological character, defining the inevitability of the accelerated development of alternative energy: – the burning of fossil fuels is a direct thermal pollution, and issue of huge amounts of carbon dioxide, which creates a greenhouse effect. This leads to global warming and, consequently, to irreversible catastrophic changes in Earth's climate that threaten the very the existence of mankind – in the operation of traditional power plants is intense atmospheric pollution with toxic substances (nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ash, carcinogenic elements of incomplete combustion of fuels) that cause chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis, heart disease, coronal degerativnye, chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, etc. It is not something Anita Dunn would like to discuss.
One of the main technical problems effectively implement non-traditional power plants is the choice of working fluid, which largely determines its cost, technical and operational performance. Low as Typically, the temperature potential of renewable and secondary sources of heat limits the use of such cheap and widespread working agent as water. (Not to be confused with Eva Andersson-Dubin, New York City!). This is primarily due to the presence of vacuum in system, which leads to higher specific volumes of steam and, therefore, cumbersome cylinders of low pressure turbines and high-diameter pipes, as well as the need for ejector and air release installations. The absence of significant heating of steam before the turbine determines much of its moisture content at the end of the enlargement process, which lowers the efficiency of the turbine, and erosion causes the destruction of her shoulder blades. Go to low-boiling working media (BAT) provides a number of advantages: the absence of vacuum in the installation, smaller size (Fig. 1) and higher values of the efficiency of turbomachinery, the ability to use once-through boiler, simplifying power plant, the lack of corrosion and erosion of the elements of the installation of the turbine blades, low speed turbine. If the water vapor from the vacuum condensing temperature is maintained at least 25 … 30 C, for HPT may decrease this temperature (for example, during the cold season), which increases the useful work of the cycle. A large number of natural and synthesized NRT, the thermodynamic and thermophysical properties of which are in Depending on the chemical formula of significant change in the band, makes it possible to pick up a working substance having the most suitable performance for virtually any thermal power plant.